DNA Extraction Experiment

Preface
DNA or Deoxyribo DeoxyriboNucleic DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid is a genetic information code molecule that exists in most living organisms. DNA is the material that forms chromosomes and is also the genetic information stored in the bodies of living things. This genetic information in the collection is a collection of commands / commands that are prepared to be able to do certain things.

DNA In Test Tube (Pict : Richard Newstead)

Instrument
Although we can use all the DNA sources, but for this experiment it is better to use DNA sources from ingredients such as green beans, spinach leaves, strawberries, chicken livers, and bananas. Do not use DNA from people who live or pets.

1,100 ml of DNA source
2.1 ml table salt, or NaCl
3. 200 ml of cold water
4. Enzymes to change the properties of proteins (eg, meat tenderizer (papaya sap), fresh pineapple juice, or contact lens cleansers)
5. 30 ml dishwashing detergent liquid
6. Alcohol 70-90% or isopropyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol

Material
1. Mixers
2. Blender
3. Sieve
4. Cup or Beaker Glass
5. The test tube
6. Straws or toothpicks

Procedure
1. Mix all ingredients, 100 ml of DNA source, 1 ml of salt, and 200 ml cold water. then blended with a blender and with a quick stirring of more than 15 seconds, this process aims to obtain a homogeneous concentration of the mixture. After this blasting the cell wall apart, and release the DNA stored in it.

2. Pour the liquid through the filter into another container. The purpose of this process is to remove large solid particles. The liquid is removed and the solid is discarded.

3. Add 30 ml of detergent liquid into the solution. Stir or turn the solution homogeneously. This solution is allowed to react for 5-10 minutes before proceeding to the next step.

4. Add a bit of meat tenderizer or spray pineapple juice or clean lens contact lid for each bottle or tube. Stir gently to combine the enzyme. Stirring hard will damage the DNA and make it harder to see in the container.

5. Tilt each tube and pour the alcohol on either side of glass or plastic to form a layer floating above the liquid. Alcohol is less dense than water, so it will float in the liquid, but we do not want to pour it into the tube because it will mix. If we examine the surface between the alcohol and each sample, you will see the mass of the white thread. This is DNA!

6. Use a wooden or straw skewer to capture and collect DNA from each tube. You can check the DNA using a microscope or magnifying glass or place it in a small container of alcohol to store it.

Discussion
1. The first step in this experiment is to choose materials that contain lots of DNA. Although we can use DNA from anywhere, the source of high plants in DNA will produce more products at the end of the experiment. The human genome is diploid, which means it contains two copies of each DNA molecule. Many plants contain multiple copies of their genetic material. For example, strawberry octoploid and contains 8 copies of each chromosome.

2. Blending is a process of separation / breakdown of cells so that we can separate DNA from other molecules. Salt and detergent to remove proteins are usually bound by DNA. Detergents also separate the lipids (fat) from the sample. Enzymes used to cut DNA. Why do we want to cut it? The DNA is folded and wrapped around the protein, so it needs to be liberated before it can be isolated.

3. Once we have completed the above steps, the DNA has been successfully separated from other cell constituents, but we still need to get it invisible. This is where the function of alcohol plays an important role. The other molecules in the sample will dissolve in alcohol, but DNA is not. When you pour alcohol (the better cold) into the solution, the DNA molecule settles so we can collect the DNA.

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