Eco-Detergent From Rambutan And Papaya Leaves


Detergent is a compound that is close to the life of the community. Detergent is often used by the community for various activities, including washing household furniture, washing dishes, and for various industrial activities. The existence of detergent that is very close to the life of society is inseparable from the large share of detergent in the life of society itself. This can be seen from statistical data which states that the use of detergent increases every year. Statistics show that there has been an increase of detergent use by household in succession in 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001 amounted to 1.97 kg, 2.11 kg, 2.26 kg, and 2.32 kg. But the increasing use of detergent, also followed by increased pollution caused by detergent. According to NKLD data of DKI Jakarta Year 2000, total detergent production per year reached 116,800 tons, with prediction of waste volume equal to 377400 tons.

Environmental pollution due to the use of detergent can not be separated from compounds that make up the detergent. In general, the detergent is composed of 3 main components, ie a surfactant compound of 20-30% comprising ABS (Alkaline Benzene Sulfate)), builder (Phosphate compound) of 70-80%, and additive (bleach and fragrance). ABS contents that serve as surfactants and foam producers in detergents cause serious pollution levels in the aquatic environment. This is because ABS is difficult to decipher by microarchitecture because ABS has a branched carbon chain. In addition, the phosphate content as a builder also contribute to pollution in the aquatic environment. This is due to the phosphate triggering the eutrophication of weed plants, thus increasing the value of BOD perariran which can result in life threatening in the waters area

However, although detergents have various contents that are harmful to the environment. People always use it because of the high level of need for its benefits, one of the detergent products is household furniture soap. Laundry soap in household appliances has some of the same chemical content as detergents, so if used sustainably it will pollute the surrounding environment and disrupt health. One of the detergent content that is quite harmful to the environment are ABS compounds, EDTA, Propylenglycol and other hazardous materials.

Therefore, based on the negative impacts caused by the materials of liquid detergents, substitution or substitution of nature is more environmentally friendly and relatively safe for health, such as by using a combination of rambutan leaves and papaya leaves. Selection of rambutan leaves and papaya as a surfactant can not be separated from the content of both materials. Rambutan leaves contain saponins as foam producers, and tannins that have the effectiveness in killing bacteria and microorganisms, besides the selection of papaya leaves as a combination of surfactant because papaya leaves contain protease enzymes that support saponin power. This is because protease enzymes can break down the protein chain in fat, so it can decompose and clean stains derived from oil or the like
Research purposes
Based on the formulation of the problems that have been presented, then the purpose of this study is
a. Formulate the procedure of making Dacar EcoSurf detergent based on rambutan  and Papaya leaves
b. Determine the feasibility level of Ecosurf Dacar through Feasibility Test
c. Knowing the consumer’s perspective on Dacar Ecosurf products
Making of Eco-Detergent Procces
Eco-Detergent Type A and Type B are produced in the same step, only differentiated on the composition of rambutan leaves used, while the production procedure of Eco-detergent are:
a. Weighing 10 grams of rambutan leaves for Eco-detergent A and dissolved in 100 ml of water, then blend until smooth to obtain rambutan leaf extract 10%
b. Considering 40 grams of rambutan leaf for Eco-detergent B, then dissolved into 100 ml water and blended until smooth, rambutan leaf extract 40%
c. Weighing 20 grams of papaya leaf and dissolved into 100 ml of water then blended until smooth, until obtained papaya leaf extract 20%
d. The orange pecel is cut thinly and blended in 50 ml water, the solution is filtered by using a tea strainer to extract the lime juice
e. 0.02 gram Gel N-70 dissolved into beaker glass
f. Next dissolve the mixture of 100 ml rambutan leaf extract and 100 ml papaya leaves into beaker glass A containing Gel N-70, and add water until the solution volume reaches 500 ml
g. The solution is stirred, add 2 ml of lime extract and 1 gram of salt in beaker glass as natural deodorizer and preservative
h. Leave the solution for 24 hours, and close tightly
i. After 24 hours, insert the lost solution into the plastic bottle, and the Eco-detergent solution is ready for use
Result And Discussion
1. Description of the Bio-Decanate Production Result
Eco-detergent is a liquid detergent made with 99% natural base material without LAS (Linear Alkyl Sulphate) and ABS (Alkaline Benzene Sulfate) commonly used by liquid soap manufacturers in Indonesia. LAS and ABS are chemicals that act as foaming surfactants. The foam on the liquid soap serves as a lift of dirt and fat. However, although both LAS and ABS have a function of fat lifting and are widely useful in people’s lives, these chemicals contain toxic substances that are harmful to the environment. This is because both LAS and ABS have carbon chains that are difficult to break by perariran microorganisms, so these two compounds are usually settled for months in the waters and causing environmental and ecosystem damage to the water areas. Besides the usual synthetic detergents using CMC and phosphate as preservatives, both of these materials have a harmful enough effect to the environment that is potential to cause eutrophication of water hyacinth on the water surface. Therefore Eco-detergent does not use both of these compounds as the basic ingredient of detergent manufacture.
Dacar EcoSurf is made by reaction between saponin-based biosurfactant and protease enzyme found on rambutan leaf and papaya leaf with Gel N-70 50 mg. Selection Gel N-70 as a producer of foam because Gel N-70 is easy to obtain on the market and the price is affordable. In addition, according to literature studies that have been done Gel N-70 has no karsigonesik or ecological effects with the content of 10-100 mg / L or 10-100 ppm against aquatic biota. In addition to minimize chemical content in Dacar EcoSurf Gel N-70 composition used in Dacar EcoSurf only reaches 0.02 grams or 20 mg every 500 ml. This is due to the limit of detergent content allowed by the government and safe for the environment in accordance with the Act of 2004 may only reach 100 mg / l or 50 mg / 0.5 l of water Therefore, the resulting foam is also not as much on detergents with LAS or ABS content.
Therefore, to produce maximum foam, Gel N-70 is combined with rambutan leaves. According to literature study that has been done rambutan leaf selection as a surfactant caused rambutan leaves have saponin and tannin content. Saponin compound is a glycoside which has function as foam producer and surface tension reducer which has the same function with surfactant made from LAS and ABS. The tannin content on rambutan leaves serves as an anti bacterium. In addition, the selection of rambutan leaves as one of the basic ingredients of making Eco-detergent not apart from the facts on the market that most liquid detergent products on the market only serves as a remover of stains and fats, without killing the harmful bacteria contained in plates, glasses, or home furnishings that have been used.
Eco-Detergent From Rambutan And Papaya Leaves
Then the selection of papaya leaves as additional basic ingredients because papaya leaves have protease enzymes that serve as a breaker of protein chains in the form of feces in the form of fat, so with the papaya leaf content in eco-detergent can maximize saponin content in Dacar EcoSurf to clean up the dirt in the form of fat, on dishwashing soap classmama line mama and Synthetic Detergents. In addition in Dacar EcoSurf also added natural fragrance derived from lime and preservatives derived from salt. The selection of lime as a perfume due to lime has a refreshing fragrance, and besides lime also has the ability to lift fat, thus maximizing the work of protease enzymes in Dacar EcoSurf. Salted salt is a natural preservative because salt has a function like CMC which is used as a chemical preservative in detergent manufactured products such as Synthetic Detergent, Mama Lime, and Rinso liquid.
2. Analysis of Eco-detergent Effectiveness Test Result
The resulting Eco-detergent is then tested for its effectiveness in removing the stain, with the control using Synthetic Detergent liquid soap. In addition, the resulting Eco-detergent is divided into 2 research groups: 1) Eco-detergent A 6.6% herbal ingredients, 0.004% Gel N-70 detergent, 93.396% water, 2) Eco-detergent B 12.6% herbal ingredients, 0.004% Gel N-70 detergent, 87.930% water. In addition to the effectiveness test materials using 2 white fabrics that have been tainted with cooking oil, while the results of experiments that have been conducted on two types of Eco-detergent are shown in the following figure:
Eco-Detergent From Rambutan And Papaya Leaves
Based on the analysis of Eco-detergent effectiveness test result with orgoneleptic test it is known that Eco-detergent B with 12.6% composition of herbal ingredients, 0.004% detergent base material, 87.930% water can remove stains oil is better than Eco-detergent A which has 6.6% ingredients of herbal ingredients, 0.004% detergent active ingredient, 93.396% water. This can be evidenced by the remaining stains left on both test kits. A fabric that uses the Eco-detergent A Dustar as a washing detergent produces a cloth that still leaves enough traces of oil, while the B fabric that uses Eco-detergent B simply removes the oil until it is almost invisible. In addition to the odor test results, it is known that both fabrics have the same fragrance. The results of organoleptic effectiveness test proved that the greater the amount of rambutan leaf content mixed as the ingredient of Eco-detergent, the greater the ability of Eco-detergent to remove stains
By : Arini Azkiyatun Nada
MTs Maarif NU 2 Sutojayan
East Java

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