“ECO-DIAPER” Environmentally Friendly Baby Diapers Made From Waste Of Grapefruit And Avocado Peels


The use of disposable diapers that are widely sold on the market is very useful to facilitate mothers in taking care of babies so that they do not require a long time and are efficient and easy to carry causing disposable diapers are easily accepted as an alternative to ordinary pants in absorbing urine from infants. in diapers are large molecular weight compounds called polymers. This polymer consists of a small repeating unit called a monomer. The chain length and the properties of the polymer can be changed by varying the reaction conditions. Besides these polyacrylates can not decompose naturally, expensive and full of acrylic acid, sodium hydroxide, and other chemicals.

In natural polymers in most citrus fruits, especially grapefruit. Orange peels contain more than 64% polysaccharides which make it an ingredient for biodegradable polymers. However, polymers must be cross-linked, usually requiring chemicals such as Sulfur and Hydrochloric acid. For this result a bond is needed to crosslink the emulsion polymerization. Emulsion polymerization is carried out using natural oils found in avocado peels and adding them to orange peels. This product besides bise as a substitute for SAP polyacrylate gel as a media for recycling waste products from the juice making industry


1. For the manufacture of super absorbent polymers from grapefruit and avocado peels

2. Shows the results of polymer super absorben from grapefruit peel and avocado peel

3. To find out diapers made with grapefruit peel and avocado peel

2. Tools and Materials


1. Beaker Glass

2. Scales

3. Scissors

4. Knife

5. Blender

6. Sieve


1. Grapefruit peel

2. Avocado Skin

3. Cotton and cloth

4. Water


A. Preparation of Super Absorbent Polymer from Grapefruit Peels and Avocado Skins
This study uses the main ingredients of waste orange peel and avocado peel which are no longer used to make super absorbent polymers. Orange peel was chosen because it contains polysaccharide polymers and is rich in chemicals, including saponins, which are substances that can kill bacteria. While the avocado peel was chosen because it contains natural oils that can bind the polymer to the orange peel. A total of one Balinese peel is washed and cut into thin strips and then dried in the sun which aims to make it easier to grind into a dry powder, after about three days the two skins are dry and ready to be mashed using a size smoothing tool in this study used a mortal and blender.

Orange and avocado peels that have been mashed using a mortal and blender are then filtered with a cloth, this refinement aims to obtain the smallest possible particles and the largest possible surface area of the particles, so that the absorption of the super absorbent polymer particles from the two fruit peels is even greater, in this study. one grapefruit fruit produces approximately 50 grams, fine powder while 1 avocado on average produces approximately 10 grams of dry fine powder, both of these fruit peel powders are ready to be used as super absorbent polymers substituting for polyacrylate

B. Testing of Super Polymer Absorben from Grapefruit Peels and Avocado Skins

Orange and avocado peels that have been mashed are then tested for their binding power to water, in this study a comparison test of avocado peel: orange peel 1: 3, 1: 4 and 1: 5, which aims to find the best composition in absorbing water, This is because the two ingredients have different functions, orange peel as a source of polymer, while avocado peel acts as a polymer binder.

In the picture  below is a 1: 3 beaker glass, containing 1 gram of avocado peel with 3 grams of orange peel, 1 beaker glass; 4 contains 1 gram of avocado peel to 4 grams of orange peel, and 1: 5 glass contains 1 gram of avocado peel to 5 grams of orange peel. In each beaker, it is filled with water with a volume of 40 ml. In this addition, it appears that the beaker containing a ratio of 1: 4 appears denser and can absorb more water.

After that, another 20 ml of water was added to all beaker glasses to test the absorption strength of the gel again, and after adding another 40 ml of water, it was observed that the solution with a ratio of 1: 4 remained solid or in the form of a gel, while the other two beakers you can see that the liquid that is not attached to the powder or the gel has started to melt. To test how much water-binding strength or the absorption capacity of SAP from orange and avocado peels, a glass beaker with a ratio of 1: 4 is added again as much as 10 ml of water, and observed again, from the results of adding every 10 ml of water, it is found that the super absorbent polymer from orange and avocado peels with a ratio of 1 gram of avocado peel and 4 grams of orange peel, it can absorb water up to a volume of 100 ml

C. Making Diapers with Super Absorbent Polymer from Orange and Avocado Peels

C. Making Diapers with Super Absorbent Polymer from Orange and Avocado Peels The ratio that produces the best absorption is the ratio of avocado skin: orange peel 1: 4 used in the ratio to make diapers. To make baby diapers in this study using baby diaper packs in the market which were taken from cotton and the SAP polyacrylate powder replaced with SAP from avocado and orange peels, in this study 2 grams of avocado peel and 8 grams of orange peel were used, this mixture was stirred evenly into. Then pour the twelve beakers into clean cotton and put them in the diaper cloth and then cover with a layer of cloth on the diaper

To test the absorption capacity of the diaper, pour 40 ml of water (the average volume of urine for a child), in this first pour the liquid can be absorbed by the diaper altogether, after about two hours then pour 40 ml again, and the liquid can again absorbs water, until until the sixth pouring, the diaper can not absorb water, this is because the SAP of orange and avocado peels have reached their maximum absorption capacity, in this case 200 ml.

When compared with baby diapers on the market, this polymer has a slightly lower absorption capacity with today’s commercial baby diapers which can absorb an average of seven times the volume of urine (approximately 40 ml per pee) or about 280 ml of baby urine. . The advantage of this bolted baby diaper is that it is easy to super absorbent, the polymer is easily degredated by the environment because it contains organic polymers, namely polysaccharides and is bound by natural oils from avocado skin. In addition, orange peel contains saponin compounds which are natural compounds which are generally used to kill bacteria.


1. Super Absorbent Polymers from grapefruit peel and avocado peel can be made by chopping orange peel and avocado peel then drying and mashed to obtain the smallest possible particles.

2.The mixture of avocado peels and orange peels that can form the best super absorbent polymer is in a ratio of 1: 4 which can hold up to 100 ml of water for every gram.

3. The results of diapers are made using the same packaging on the market by replacing Polyacrylate SAP with SAP from avocado and orange peels, from making 2 grams of avocado peel powder and 8 grams of orange peel powder made of diapers, able to hold 200 ml of water