Fermented Soybean (Phaseolus aureus) in Removing the HCN on Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta)

Preface

Flour is a solid particle in the form of fine grains that play an important role in the life of Indonesian society. It can not be separated from the role of flour that is very diverse, very practical use, and nutritional content that is needed by humans. The role of flour for the diverse Indonesian society is evidenced by its existence which is required as an industrial raw material, especially in the food industry. Besides flour is also a major ingredient in the fulfillment of household needs, such as baking and bread.

Flour is also known to be very practical in its use. By cultivating a material into flour, the community can keep it in the long run. Processing a basic ingredients into flour is also preferred by the community because the flour itself has a white, odorless, and tasteless trait that is easy to process. Menururt Food Security and Extension of DIY Province (2014), the average flour contains protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron, water, vitamin B and the most dominant content of starch or carbohydrate derivatives needed by the body.

Viewed from the main types of materials, flour is divided into several groups such as wheat flour, rice flour, and cassava flour. Cassava flour is one type of flour that lately so loved by the community. This is because the selling price is twice cheaper than the price of flour usually. In addition to the cheap price, cassava flour has many advantages compared to flour usually.

The first advantage of cassava flour compared to other flour is its high stone content, making it easier to make satiety (BKKP, 2014). In addition to its high content, cassava starch also does not contain an amorphous mixture of proteins contained with starch in some cereal endosperms, especially wheat or often called gluten (Jatmiko, 2014). Gluten itself is very difficult to digest by normal human digestion and will be toxic digestion for some people with abnormalities such as celiac disease disorder, diabetes, and autism, so the use of cassava flour can be used as an alternative that will be very beneficial for the patient.
The quality of cassava flour is also excellent. The solids that are owned by cassava flour are also so strong that in its use it is not necessary that amount is too much. In addition, the water content of cassava flour is much less than the other water content of flour, so it can produce better products when steamed. The main advantage of cassava flour itself is because of the existence of its basic ingredients are easy to find. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) or basic ingredients of cassava flour are plants in tropical or subtropical countries. Cassava tubers are rich in carbohydrates that make them famous for staple foods. In addition to serving as processed staple foods, cassava is also famous for its processed products such as tape, chips, and flour.
Processing of cassava should be treated with extreme caution. This is due to the reaction of chemical compounds in cassava that can produce cyanide acid, although it is more often found in small amounts. However, in certain types of cassava, the cyanide acid contained tenyata exceeds the maximum limit of cyanide acid that can be neutralized by the body. Cyanide acid (HCN) is a compound that causes toxins when entering the human body. Cyanide acid has become the second most deadly poison in the world, including Indonesia. Today, various ways of removing cyanide acid on cassava have been found. An example is through the heating process. It was found that these methods were quite effective in reducing cyanide to cassava. However, the method can make the nutrients contained in cassava evaporate along with rising temperatures during the heating process.
In addition, the heating process also has a negative impact on humans around it. This is due to the volatile nature of cyanide acid. Steam containing cyanide acid can contaminate the surrounding air. If the air is inhaled by humans, it will be bad for human oxidation process. Therefore, a safer and more effective process is needed in eliminating cyanide content in cassava. Among them can be done by using the fermentation method using lactic acid bacteria that can be done with high-bergaterialose natural ingredients, such as yeast tempe. However, the content of lactic acid produced by tempe yeast is not high. Thus, another alternative is needed in removing the cyanide acid content, one of which can be done with the fermentation of soybean sprouts.
Soybean sprouts (Phaseolus aureus) are young plants of soybeans that have recently developed from the embryonic stage in the seeds. Grains have a high nutritional value when germinating. East Asian and South East Asian societies often make sprouts into vegetables called soybean sprouts. In addition to consumed, sprouts can be fermented into preparations needed by humans. Sprout fermentation results in a variety of good bacteria that are symbiotic to produce lactic acid which can help in other fermentation processes, such as in the process of making vegetable yoghurt.
Research purposes
The research purposes:
1. Knowing the effect of soybean fermentation on HCN content on cassava flour.
2. Determine the effect of fermentation time of soybean sprouts on HCN content on cassava flour.
3. Knowing the effect of the addition of fermented soybean flour to the quality of cassava flour.
4. Knowing the effectiveness of fermentation of soybean sprouts in removing HCN content on cassava flour.
Manufacturing Techniques
Tools and Materials
To perform this activity required tools to facilitate the experimental process. Tools used are blenders, measuring cups, scales, airtight bottles, scarves, basins, knives / peeler, tempeh, and pestle. The main ingredients in this experiment were soybean sprouts, water, and cassava.
Fermented Soybean (Phaseolus aureus) in Removing the HCN on Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta)
Procedure for Making Fermented Sprouts
The work procedure of making the fermentation of sprouts begins with preparing the tools, ie blenders, measuring cups, scales and airtight bottles, and materials, in the form of soybean sprouts and water. Sprouts are then soaked in water and discharged floating on the surface of the water, because the sprouts can be categorized sprouts damaged / poor quality. The sprouts were then blended with water at a ratio of 3 to 4. The sprouts were stored in a closed container and stored in several hourly comparisons (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours).
Procedures for Making Cassava Flour
The working procedure of making cassava flour begins with preparing the tools, namely scales, scar, basin, knife / peeler, tempeh and tool mashed, and materials, in the form of cassava and fermented soybean sprouts. Then the cassava skin is washed so that it does not land. Cassava that has been clean peeled top surface cassava skin to clean, then shredded smoothly. After that, given a teaspoon of fermented sprouts, or equivalent to 5 milliliters to every kilogram of cassava and then wait for cassava, to react, for 5 minutes. After the cassava is fermented, the cassava is dried under the hot sun until it is stiff. Cassava is then pounded and / or sifted to a grain of flour.
Test the Effectiveness of Fermented Soybean Meal on HCN Level on Cassava
A. Tools and Materials
To test the effectiveness of soybean fermentation result on HCN content in cassava, tools and materials are needed to simplify the process. The tools needed are erlenmeyer tube, filter paper, measuring cylinder, stirring rod, and pumpkin. While the required ingredients are picrat acid, tartic acid, and Na2CO3 8%.
Fermented Soybean (Phaseolus aureus) in Removing the HCN on Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta)
B. Test Procedure
The testing procedure begins with preparing the tools and materials written above. Then cassava is divided into 4 groups. The first group was the untreated control group. The second group will be given 5 ml of 24 hr of fermented germination, the third group is given 5 ml of 48 hours fermented germination, the last group is given the result of 72 hours of fermentation of sprouts.
Then 50 grams of crushed cassava were put in 50 ml of water on a 250 ml erlenmeyer and 10 ml of 5% tartic acid solution was added. Prepared a 1 x 7 cm filter paper, immersed in a solution of saturated picric acid, then dried in air. After drying the paper wetted with 8% NaCO3 solution and hung on the erlenmeyer neck above, and closed in such a way that the paper does not come in contact with the fluid in the erlenmeyer. Next, heated over the bath for 15 minutes at a temperature of 50 degrees. When the filter paper turns darker, such as redness or browning, it means that cassava contains cyanide or HCN. The first measurement results are matched on cyanide test indicator.
Fermented Soybean (Phaseolus aureus) in Removing the HCN on Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta)
After that, the result of fermented sprouts on 50 grams of cassava that has been pounded and stirred flat and then wait 5 minutes of reaction. Then again prepared cassava into 50 ml of water on 250 ml erlenmeyer and added 10 ml of 5% tartic acid solution. Prepared a 1 x 7 cm filter paper, immersed in a solution of saturated picric acid, then dried in air. After drying the paper wetted with an 8% NaCO3 solution and hung on the erlenmeyer neck above, and cover it so that the paper does not come in contact with the fluid in the erlenmeyer. Next, heated over the bath for 15 minutes at a temperature of 50 degrees. If the filter paper turns red, the cassava still contains cyanide or HCN. The cyanide content is seen in the color change of the filter paper. The lighter the color, the less cyanide content it contains. After the results come out, the results are matched on the cyanide test indicator.
Fermented Soybean (Phaseolus aureus) in Removing the HCN on Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta)
By
Cetta Reswara Parahita
Alhikmah Junior Highschool
Surabaya east Java
Indonesia

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