Installation of Water Purification and Using Cactus (Opuntia cochenillifera) As coagulant To Overcome The Clean Water Problem Around The River Community


  1. Problems

Clean water is a basic human need, because human activities can not be separated from its. Clean water is needed for primary, secondary and tertiary human needs both directly and indirectly. Communities consume clean water from raw water sources with or without processing first. The need for processing before consuming clean water due to the quality of water from raw water sources is not guaranteed. Moreover, population growth in a region will increase land use and water use in raw water sources for various activities. Various activities of human life make the quantity and quality of water in raw water sources increasingly not guaranteed. However, increased awareness of clean water as a supporter of human health makes it a very important requirement.

The childern living in the river area

Water treatment can be done individually or collectively. With the development of population and technology in urban areas. Special water treatment is done by drinking water company. Chemical processes in the treatment of drinking water include coagulation, aeration, reduction and oxidation. All chemical processes can be done simply or using modern techniques. Basically water purification is performed by one of three methods or combinations of the 3 methods, methods of physics, chemical methods, biological methods.

With the existence of settlement land in the Watershed with poor community behavior such as disposing of garbage, bathroom wash water and fecal matter directly to the river will have an impact on the quality of river water. The dynamics of residential land on the quality of river water can know the pattern of river water quality based on the pattern of community behavior in Bengawan Solo River Basin in Gresik Regency east Java Indonesia. People in Solo flow areas still use river water for daily use either for bathing or for washing. With the existence of the behavior of the community need to treatment water in a simple and easy to be done by the surrounding community to meet the needs of clean water using the source of water bengawan Solo.

Solo River

Cactus is a wild plant that often grows in the forest or fields, this plant has thorns. So often not used by the community and considered as ordinary wild plants. Actually, cactus plants are very rich in flavonoids. Flavonoids are well known especially for their antioxidant abilities so-called “natural biological response modifiers”. green in size like oval plates, has a large nutritional value. Minerals such as potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, are widely found in that section, plus beta-carotene (the first form of vitamins A) and vitamins C. When the cactus is boiled, the mucilago is gum-thick and sticky like glue, mucilago is protector against the sun. This substance prevents water evaporation from the surface of the cactus.

Cactus plant

When mixed with dirty water, the mucilago that is composed of sugar and carbohydrates that bind fine particles that contaminate the water. The bond then clumps, so it is easily separated from the clean water section. The mucilago cleans water from arsenic, harmful pollutants from industrial waste and agriculture. Arsenic that can cause cancer can also be bound by mucilago, a molecule that is large enough so that it can be filtered with sand. Not only that, mucilago can also kill bacteria that is one of the harmful pollutants in drinking water, mucilago can produce clean water 98 percent free of bacteria.

2. Purpose
1.  Showing Making miniature purification water installation using cactus as coagulant
2.  Showing the working mechanism of miniature water purification installation with cactus as coagulant
3. Demonstrate the results and benefits of water produced in the community in the area River flow

3. Tools and Materials
1. Mineral Water Bottle size 1.5 liter

2. Sangle

3. Scissor

4. The iron bar

5. Burn glue

6. Bucket

Material :
1.Cactus leaf

2.Dirty Water

4. Result

  1. Making Miniature of Water Purifier Installation

In this research we use bottled water bottles 1,5 liter and using iron pillars of 1.5 meters and is equipped with a buffer that has been set aside from top to bottom levels.

The Cutting Of Material

mineral water bottle cut approximately 20 cm from the bottle cap and the side of the perforated bottom of theMbottle with a diameter of approximately 2 cm for hose coupling, in the manufacture of miniature tools used purify of 7 pieces, the filter is located the bottom of the miniature

Filter Material

The filter used in this miniature is a biosand filter, using the following order of the upper part consisting of activated carbon 5cm, smooth sand 5 cm, silica sand 5cm and large pebble 4 cm.

Biosand Filter

Ready-made mineral water bottle then placed and placed on the support pole with the inverted position and the lid is located below, and between the vials one with the other is connected with  2 cm ellipse hose which aims to drain the dirty water and precipitate the water coagulatively step by step by gravity

Assembling Miniature Installation of Water Purifier

2. Extraction of Leaf Cactus Cogulant

Cactus is a wild plant is often grown on the edge of the woods or fields, these plants have thorns, in this study we used 1 kg of cactus leaves and cut into square sections to be easily in the boiling process.

The boilingof cactus

After the cut-up, the cactus was added to 500 ml of water, and boiled in the stove, after boiling water was cooled then filtered and ready to use

The cactus extract

To test whether this cactus leaf extract can purify water, we added cactus extract to raw water, we prepared two glasses raw water.

Raw Water

The first glass contain raw water and the others contain raw water and cactus extract. Both of water glass stired for few minutes.

The Clear Water

The result showed that glass added cactus extract is clear and glass without cactus extract still dirty or dark, it is showed that cactus leaf extract can be used to precipitate impurities in water.

The Dark Water

3. Mechanism and Operating Apparatus To Produced Water 
Miniature of Water Purification Installation is made ​​using gravity and deposition systems using a cactus extract as coagulant , cactus serves to precipitate dirt to and forming Coagualan to form flocs which can be separated by flowing through the tanks or bottles that have been in the chain from top to bottom, the floc will be left in each of the shelter and last relatively clear water will enter and exit the filter as clean water

Application of tools to the field

Making storage tanks of the bottle is intended to precipitate flocs, the top of the water will flow into the next bottle, the precipitated floc again and the water came out again into the next bottle and it floc settles again, so on until the water reaches filter. To cleaning flocs that exist in the tub stay uncorking the bottom.

Sampling of river water

Raw water samples taken from the Solo River has approximately 800-1000 NTU turbidity during the rainy season, the water at the start of this study are clarified Solo River approximately 5 liters, after it cactus was added at a concentration of 5 percent of 25 ml and stirred up evenly, then allowed to stand approximately one minute and poured into miniature IPA that has been made​​, dirty water within 5 minutes can already be processed into clean water, through a process flokuasi, sedimentation and filtration of water produced by the 10 NTU turbidity and pH 7 water which is worth mentioning as clean water.

The pouring process and purifying water

Bangeran Lebak subdistrict village Dukun Gresik City, an area through which flow bengawan Solo, most people still there who use the river for the benefit of bathing, washing and drinking their livestock. With this simple technology in rural communities expect the Valley Bangeran Dukun Gresik this can be helped by water purification the former miniature From bottle. This tool is able to purify 1 liter of water per minute so that it can produce enough water in each of its use

The river water and the result water

Aside from being a source of clean water during the dry or rainy season this tool can also be helpful when used during frequent floods inundated the village. This device has a 1,5 meter high so that when the flood can be used as an alternative to the manufacture of clean water, dirty flood water can be filtered by using this tool and can be used for bathing and cooking purposes may be taken with or even cook it first, and it coagulan can get from tree searched the area surrounding fields

Villagers who use the tools

Local communities Solo River in the village of Lebak Bangeran find it with a miniature treatment plant is because it is quite simple and can be made with the tools and objects that exist around the house, the easy operational and obtained the results clear water to be used in purposes everyday

Villager with raw water and clean water


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