Making of Salt Water to fresh Water Simple Tools Using Solar Energy


For people living in coastal areas, the presence of fresh water is a very important source of water. Often heard when the dry season starts to come, the people who live in coastal areas or small islands begin to lack water. Rainwater that is a source of water that has been prepared in the rain water reservoir often can not meet the needs in the dry season. As we know, the current problem of clean water crisis is very often heard, even in almost every region.

The fact that there is an existing salt water source on earth is so abundant, and many residential areas are actually growing on the coast. Seeing such a reality so far many human efforts have been made to treat brines or brackish water but most use equipment that is relatively expensive one of them is developing semipermeabel membrane technology system. The semipermeable membrane is a molecular-scale filtering film that can be easily penetrated by water molecules, but it can not or is difficult to traverse by other molecules larger than water molecules.

The existing problem is that this semipermeable membrane technology is difficult to reach for the lower classes, as most of the people living in coastal areas are middle and low. So it is needed simple and affordable method by lower class society to design the building of salt water converting into fresh water with distillation system based on simple condensation process by utilizing existing tools and natural potency.


To make a salt water converter box using solar power is needed  tools such as wood, plywood, saws, nails, hammers, zinc sheets, mica and glass. The wood cut forms a rectangular part and is formed into a beam with one of the higher end portions, it is intended that the evaporated water can enter to the lowest part, on the inside of the wood is installed a sheet of zinc which is divided into two parts ie the top for water the ocean which will be the place for the warming of the ocean water to be evaporated and the bottom to accommodate the evaporated seawater or fresh water.

The Equipment used

The upper part of the tool is coated with mica and glass that serves as a place to sack heat or a source of incoming sunlight. In the bottom of the glass which is a place of fresh water is cooled in the form of cotton or cloth that has been cooled with the goal agaruap formed can be down to the existing shelter below, while at the bottom hollowed as a place for the release of airtawaryang generated. In this hole is given a hose that will connect the evaporation box with the freshwater storage container

The box making

Essentially, the principle of sea water purification is to separate salt from seawater to obtain fresh water, to separate salt from sea water is to imitate the natural way, that is by evaporating seawater and then condensing the vapor back. When the seawater is heated, only the water evaporates, the dissolved salts remain in solution (seawater). This distilled device can be used as a drinking water provider in a coastal village away from fresh water sources or other useable biases, for example as aquadest resource for laboratories in schools

Seawater sampling

In this tool can accommodate approximately 5 liters of sea water is entered into the upper hose, after the place for the sea water is full, then the next tool is heated in the hot sun, for this heating is done a full day to produce as much fresh water as possible. This heated air will evaporate within approximately half an hour after heating, then half an hour later the steam from the sea water has begun to descend to the bottom of the mica or glass to proceed to a freshwater shelter, in this experiment within a day of approximately 8 hours obtained water approximately 2-3 liters.

Pouring sea water into the tool
The distillation process lasts for five days, and the average daily production of water is 2.5 l per day. The fresh water produced here is the vapor from seawater that is held up by the glass and then flowed through the pipe to the freshwater container. The evaporation process in the evaporation room will be better if the water temperature in the evaporation space is higher. The higher the temperature of a liquid the movement of molecules in it will be faster until there is collision between molecules that will cause the faster the process of mass transfer from liquid to gas (evaporation). Furthermore after the evaporation process, there is a condensation process which is the final process of distillation. The condensation process is influenced by the temperature of the evaporator room cover glass. The lower the temperature of the cover glass the faster the condensation process will occur. Both of these affect the quantity of distilled water produced.

In this study, sea water evaporation occurs at temperatures below 100 ° C but in theory the water will boil at 100 ° C at normal (1 atm). This is because the evaporator room has a high temperature due to solar radiation heating which causes the air temperature in the evaporation room to increase. In the case of condensation at the closing portion having a lower temperature when compared to the temperature of the evaporator, it will lower the condensation temperature so as to cause the evaporator temperature to be below the vapor point normally.

The result tool

Based on the result of this research, the quantity of distilled water is not maximal yet. This is because there is still a little leakage in the distillation device and sunlight conditions are less supportive. Maximum sunlight conditions will result in maximum evaporation (steam), resulting in maximum moisture (distillate water) as well, low evaporation rate conditions. From this study indicates that a distillation device utilizing solar power is able to produce fresh water as much as 2.6 l / day. However, during the dry season the demand for clean water will increase, so it is likely that the price of clean water will increase.

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