Dengue fever cases (DHF) in Indonesia in recent years become a nation problem because from year to year has increased the number. At the end of January, the Director General of Disease Control and Environmental Health of the Ministry of Health (MoH) stated there were 107 districts reporting DHF attacks with 1,669 cases. Recorded 22 patients died, so the average dengue fever in January 2016 was 1.3%. The last five years of DHF incidence ranged from 4 to 103 events with approximately 630 to 8,056 cases. The number of dengue fever deaths ranges from one to 144. This means that the average number of deaths due to DBD over the past five years has increased 0.1 to 1.8 percent.
DHF is a flu-like illness caused by one of four types of dengue virus that is infected by Aedes Aegypti female mosquitoes. DHF is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions. Indonesia is one region that has a tropical climate with high rainfall. This condition resulted in the presence of mosquitoes in Indonesia very much, especially the type Aedes Aegypti.
Efforts to eradicate mosquitoes in Indonesia so far have been done in various ways. Most people use mosquito repellent as a mosquito burn repellent. Mosquito repellent is a drug in the form of smoke or other commonly used community to evict or eradicate mosquitoes. There are various types of mosquito repellent, such as: mosquito coils, spray and electric. However, various types of mosquito repellent can endanger human health and less friendly to the environment.
The hazards contained by mosquito coils are very high because the mosquito repellent contains propoxur (carbanot compounds). In electric mosquito repellent, not only harmful propoxur content, but also other chemicals such as Dichlorovynil Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP) and Dethyltoluamide. Ingredients is categorized as hazardous to health because it is a type of insecticide insecticide material. Hazardous materials in the mosquito repellent can cause respiratory problems. The initial symptoms are coughing. For a long time, these materials can cause nerve, cancer, lung and heart disorders. Not only the inside, the outside like the skin can be irritated if exposed to the active ingredients of mosquito repellent. The skin will become reddish and when scratched can cause cuts and abrasions on the skin.
Therefore it takes alternative natural ingredients that can eradicate mosquitoes and not harmful to human health. Some plants that can muddy mosquitoes are lemongrass oil, garlic and black pepper have a distinctive odor so that mosquitoes can not stand the smell. In addition to the above ingredients, basil plants are also believed to repel mosquitoes. The content of citrate and flavonoids from basil leaves, capable of killing the respiratory system in mosquitoes.
In the other hand, bagasse is often encountered on the side of the road which is a waste of sugarcane drink. Sugar cane drink much favored by the community so that the presence of bagasse is quite abundant. However, the utilization of bagasse has not been maximized. The bagasse can only be used as animal feed or just throw it away as waste. In this study bagasse will be used as a medium of active substances from basil leaves to make anti-mosquito drugs electrically. Selection of bagasse is because if using basil leaves alone, will require a lot of basil leaves. Then needed additional material that serves for the media binding active substances basil. The selected material is bagasse.
The purpose of this study as follows.
1. Knowing how to manufacture anti-mosquito repellent from bagasse and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum)?
2. Knowing the effectiveness of the use of electric anti-mosquito drugs from bagasse and basil leaf (Ocimum sanctum)?
3. Knowing the ratio of electrical anti-mosquito drugs from bagasse and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum) with other anti-mosquito drugs?
Tools and Materials Research
Materials needed in this study as follows.
1. Cane baggage
2. Basil leave
3. Starchy starch (tapioca starch)
The tools used in this study include:
1. Baking pan
9. Screen printing plate
11. Electric mosquito repellent device
Step Research Work
Manufacture of Anti-Mosquito Electrical Drugs from Bagasse and Basil leaves
1. Cane bagasse obtained from cane seller
2. While basil is picked by picking from the basil plant.
3. Bagasse and basil leaves dried by drying. for 1- 2 days in direct sunlight to dry.
4. Cut into small pieces and blend to powder.
5. Basil leaf powder mixed with starch and added water
6. Then heated to make the starch glue
7. Sugarcane powder and kanji adhesive are mixed until well mixed.
8. The mixture is poured over the screen printing plate and flattened.
9. Then dried in the sun for 2-3 days until completely dry.
10. After drying, sheets of anti-mosquito coils cut into small pieces with a size of 3.5 x 2 cm.
11. An electrical anti-mosquito drug from bagasse and basil leaves is ready for use.
Laboratory Test of Anti Mosquito Drug from Sugar Cane and Basil Leaf
1. Flutter taken from the gutter.
2. Inserted into mineral water bottle given a small hole.
3. Leave 2-3 days to become a mosquito.
4. The bottle containing the mosquitoes is inserted in a box covered with top plastic and given an air hole.
5. The mosquito in the bottle is removed by opening the plastic bottle cover.
6. An electric mosquito repellent of bagasse and basil leaves are installed on electrical devices.
7.Observed every hour change the number of living and dead mosquitoes.
Field Test of Anti Mosquito Drugs from Sugar Cane and Basil Leaf
1. Anti-mosquito repellent given to respondents who used anti-mosquito repellent, either burn, spray, or electric.
2. Respondents were asked to install anti-mosquito repellent starting at 17.00.
3. During the last night anti-mosquito repellent is installed and switched off in the morning
4. Respondents were asked to compare with the usual
Result And Discussion
Making Mosquitoes Electrical Drugs from Sugar Cane and Basil Leaf
The manufacture of electric anti-mosquito drugs from bagasse and basil leaf is quite simple, both in terms of tools and materials, also the way of making relatively easy to do by all circles of society. Making anti-mosquito repellent from bagasse and basil leaves can be done through the following stages:
1.Preparation of bagasse
Sugarcane waste is a waste generated from cane ice seller. Sugarcane bagasse obtained usually still not too dry. So it needs to be dried by drying in the sun for 1-2 days. Once completely dry, bagasse is cut into small pieces and mashed in a blended way to obtain a powder of bagasse.
2. Making adhesive glue
The adhesive used in making anti-mosquito repellent is the starch adhesive. Besides the cheap price, the process of making starch adhesive is very simple. In this study the adhesives were made by adding starch and basil leaves. Basil leaves are added with variations of A (5 grams), B (10 grams), and C (15 grams). A mixture of starch and basil leaves is inserted in the basin and added water, then stirred until well mixed. The starchmixture is heated under low heat and stirred to prevent cloudy glue from occurring.
3. Anti-mosquito repellent mintage
The bagasse is mixed with the starch adhesive bit by bit until it is perfectly mixed. The dough is printed into paper by pouring on a screen printing plate and flattened. The mold is then dried for 2-3 days to dry. After dry the mold is cut into pieces measuring 3.5 x 2 cm according to the size of the place of anti-mosquito repellent electric. These pieces will be used as an electric mosquito repellent.
Variation of Basil’s Leaf on Anti Mosquito repellent
In this research have been made 3 kinds of anti mosquito with variation of number of basil leaves. Anti Mosquito Drug A using 5 gram basil leaves, Anti Mosquito B treatment using 10 gram of basil leaves and Anti Mosquito C medicine using 15 gram basil leaves. The composition of bagasse was made equal, ie 50 grams each. The three types of anti-mosquito drugs produced can be seen in the picture below
Based on the observations, it can be seen the difference of anti-mosquito reppelent A, B, and C as listed in the table
Based on the above table it can be seen that the best anti mosquito is the type of C is the composition of basil leaves of 10 grams. On this mosquito repellen has a denser texture than the other so that when put into the tool mat more easily.
Based on the longest effect on mosquitoes it is known that the anti-mosquito C drug is faster eradicating than the anti-mosquito A and B. This is because more and more basil leaves more and more active substances issued by anti mosquito repellent. So the mosquitoes die sooner.
Thus, based on the characteristics and effects on mosquitoes, a good anti-mosquito repellent is an anti-mosquito C drug that contains a composition of 10 grams of basil.
Testing of Anti Mosquito From Baggase and Basil Leaves
Anti-mosquito repellent that has been produced, conducted laboratory tests in killing mosquitoes. Mosquitoes obtained from larvae breeding process. An electrical anti-mosquito repellent of bagasse and basil leaves are attached to the electrical device and fed into the box. Further observed every hour changes the number of living and dead mosquitoes. A series of laboratory test equipment can be seen in the picture below
In this study, laboratory testing was done 3 repetitions, which yielded the following data:
Based on the above table it can be seen that the electrical anti-mosquito drugs from bagasse and basil leaf does not directly kill the mosquito, but takes about 1 hour. In the first hour the mosquitoes were limp and did not fly. By the second hour, there were already some dead mosquitoes. While at the third hour all the mosquitoes died. Although it takes time, but this anti-mosquito drug is quite effective because it can kill all the mosquitoes in the box for 3 hours. In addition, this anti-mosquito repellent can be used in a long time.
In addition to laboratory tests, the resulting anti-mosquito repellent product was conducted by field test on the respondents. A total of 10 respondents were selected who in his house there are many mosquitoes and commonly use anti-mosquito repellent. Respondents were asked to try anti-mosquito repellent. The mosquito repellent was started at 5 pm and turned off in the morning. Respondents were asked to comment on the effectiveness and odor of anti-mosquito repellent from bagasse and basil leaves. The test results of respondents can be seen in the table
Based on the above table it can be seen that the electrical anti-mosquito drugs from bagasse and basil leaf effectively kill, ie as many as 90% of respondents admitted the room is given anti mosquito repellent mosquitoes, while 10% say able to drive, but there are still a few mosquitoes. Not only are effective, these anti-mosquito drugs also do not emit an odor that interferes with their breathing. Respondents who said there was no smell as much as 100%. This indicates that the electrical anti-mosquito drugs from bagasse and basil leaf are environmentally friendly because they do not cause disturbance in humans.
Comparison of the Use of Anti-Mosquito Medication of Sugar Cane and Basil Leaves with Other Anti Mosquito Repellent
There are many types of anti-mosquito Repellent known to the public. All of them have different usage characteristics. So also with its effectiveness also vary. But most of the mosquito repellent in the community generally contain chemicals that are harmful to human health. Alternative mosquito repellent drugs from bagasse and basil leaf, in addition to effectively killing mosquitoes, this product does not cause health problems because it is made from natural ingredients that do not contain harmful chemicals. The following comparison of the use of various types of anti-mosquito Repellent.
Based on the description can be known anti-mosquito repellentbagasse and basil leaves have advantages in terms of long effectiveness and not produce. Although not directly kill mosquitoes, but anti-mosquito drugs from bagasse and basil leaf is preferred by the community because the smell does not cause health problems.
Thus, some of the advantages of the electric mosquito repellent of bagasse and basil leaves are as follows.
a. Easy to make, bagasse and basil leaves are easy to find. In addition, the process of making mosquito repellent is easy and can be done by everyone
b. Cheaper, bagasse materials and basil leaves are obtained free of charge or take their own.
c. Longer: one piece of anti-mosquito coil can be used up to 2 days
d. Environmentally friendly, this mosquito repellent does not produce an odor or aroma that interfere with breathing.
Considering some advantages of mosquito larvae and basil leaves, it is necessary to apply the use of Anti Mosquito repellentof bagasse and basil leaf in the community. Thus, people who have respiratory disorders can use it and are not worried about the danger of using such anti-mosquito repellent. Besides as an environmentally friendly mosquito repellent, this utilization is expected to be a business opportunity for the community.
MTsNU Trate Gresik East Java