Cigarette is a cylinder of paper that has a length of about 70 mm – 120 mm in diameter 10 mm containing tobacco leaves are chopped and cork as filter. From every cigarette roughly 20% will be wasted as cigarette butts after being smoked by cigarette consumers. Cigarette butts are a lot of waste in the environment that can damage the beauty of the environment. According to laboratory studies, there are chemicals such as arsenic, nicotine, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and heavy metals that can pollute the environment.
Meanwhile, according to Keep American Beautiful, cigarette butts are the most marine polluters with 21% of pollution in other seas. With so much waste of cigarette butts can cause environmental pollution that causes fish to die because of harmful substances in cigarette butts such as nicotine. The dangers of nicotine can be explained by the fact that 4 cc of nicotine is enough to kill a large rabbit (Haidar et al, 2010).
Plastic is one of the waste that has become a lot of problems in the environment as one of the intangible entropy. It takes about 500-1000 years for plastic waste to break down completely. Plastics is one of the biggest contributors to global warming. Along with the development of the times, global warming is increasing and become a threat to every living creature. Data from the Environment Protection Body, an environmental agency in the United States, notes that there are about 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags used worldwide each year. Based on data from the Ministry of Environment (KLH) informed of the total volume of garbage heap in all districts and cities in Indonesia which reached 666 million liters per year, about 14 percent is plastic waste. This shows that Indonesia is one of the largest contributor of plastic waste in the world, let alone the limitation of the use of plastic bags has not been worked well by the government.
To break the chain of global warming, the use of environmentally friendly materials is one of the future improvement efforts, namely by placing a plastic with materials that are more easily degraded by microorganisms, with a balance of stability between the use of plastic and degradation as well as a certain proportion between the material of plastic origin with degradable material.
Potential materials for bioplastics production can be obtained from untapped cellulosic biomass because of their high tensile strength. However, cellulose is insoluble in most solvents so it can not be directly processed into bioplastics (Rachmaniah et al., 2009). To form bioplastics, cellulose is acetylated with acetic anhydride to produce cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is one type of a cellulose derived natural polymer having an organized microfibril structure that dissolves in a variety of non-polar solvents. Cellulose acetate is of excellent quality with good transparency, high tensile strength, heat resistance, low water absorption, and easily degrades naturally.
These properties make cellulose acetate a great potential for development in packaging, membrane and textile industries. Various researches have been conducted in Indonesia as well as other countries on the utilization of cellulose acetate for the making of films (Safriani, 2000), membranes (Bhongsuwan and Bhongsuwan, 2008), and composite materials (Tsioptisia et al., 2010). The application depends on the degree of esterification (degrees of substitution) of cellulose acetate. (Puls et al., 2011).
The utilization of cellulose acetate as bioplastic constituent polymer is still minimal, whereas bioplastic is needed as a substitute for conventional plastic. The physical properties of cellulose acetate are very potential for the manufacture of bioplastics. One of the waste that contains cellulose acetate is filter or cork that exist in cigarette, so far this waste is garbage that become problem at this time.
The purpose of writing of this student’s scientific writing is:
1. Show the process of removing nicotine and other substances in cigarette butts?
2. Shows the process of making biodegradable plastic from cigarette butts waste?
3. How are plastic products made from cigarette butts?
1. Cleaning of Cigarettes From Nicotine and Other Materials
To make plastic from cigarette butts, the first step is to clean the cigarette butts from other compounds that are harmful to cigarettes. First cigarette butts are separated between tobacco parts and filter parts or corks, after which the cigarette filter is cleaned by removing the wrapping paper and taking the filter only.
After getting the filter (cork) then soaked water and heated (in reflux) approximately 2 hours and set aside overnight or 12 hours which aims to remove the water-soluble organic or inorganic compounds, after which the filtrate is removed and replaced or soaked again with ethanol 90 % then heated or refluxed for approximately one hour which aims to remove other organic or non-organic compounds dissolving in organic solvents such as alcohols. While the cellulose acetate compound on the filter cigarette butts are not soluble in water and alcohol
After the cold filtered and filter taken to dry by drying and ready to use, while the filtrate or water and alcohol from the reflux results can be used for natural pesticides because they contain nicotine compounds that can kill insects.
2. Plastic Making from Cigarette Butts
To make the plastic, so much as 1 gram (about 5 cigarette butts) put into the beaker, cigarette butts are the source of cellulose acetate and added 10 ml of 50% acetone, acetone serves as a solvent of cellulose acetate polymer and stirred until dissolved, at the time stirring with acetone is carried out slowly without heating, this is due to the volatile acetone acetone properties, after the soluble is added as much as 1 ml of glycerol stirred with stirrer to homogeneous, glycerol serves as a platisizer that makes cellulose acetate from this cigarette butt elastic.
After the homogeneous mixture, added dye to enhance the color of the plastic, in this experiment made the manufacture of 3 different plastic colors, as well as the concentration of different glycerol.
3. Testing of Plastic Products Created
To test this plastic is tested hardness, elasticity, water penetration and biodegradation by soil bacteria. Because of some existing equipment for hardness testing used physical method that is by pulling the plastic on both ends, the plastic made from the make from filter cigarette butts is very strong. The concentration of glycerol also affects the elasticity of the plastic, the higher the concentration of glycerol the harder the plastic is formed.
In addition, to test the plastic made by water-resistant test, in this experiment the plastic is made to hold water, while to test the biodegradation of plastics so the plastic is buried in the ground for several days, from the experiments on plastic 6.72 grams after 10 days in pendam becomes 6.60 grams. On the plastic weighs 4.19 grams after being buried ten days to 4, 04 and the plastic weighs 3.94 grams after being buried ten days to 3.79 grams. From the results of the above experiments show that within 10 days of submergence into the soil has been terkedrasi approximately 0.1 grams.